Components of Information Technology


The type of technology which spread information from one place to another by using computing with high-speed communication links. The interconnection of computers enables people to send and receive information. The communication links are also used to communicate with different people in the world.

The world has become a global village due to information technology. It means that people living in the world know one another as if they are living in a village. It has become possible due to fast communication links. Information can be transferred from one place to another place easily and quickly.

Information plays an important role in every field of life. Information can be used to improve the standard of life. It can also be used for solving different problems. For example, if a person has the latest information about the medical field, he can use this information to cure different diseases.

IT has enabled many institutions and organizations to be a part of digital convergence. The digital convergence means that various industries have merged electronically to exchange information. This merging is very important in the modern world. The information can be transferred in various forms such as text, photos, audio and video etc.

Components of Information Technology

Three components of information technology are as follows:


Electronic systems that can be instructed to accept, process, store, and present data and information.

Communications Network

It is an interconnection of different locations through a medium that allows people to send and receive information. Communication network allows people and businesses to interact. It includes hardware, programs and information. Through the use of communication networksIT has becomerevolutionized. Information can be transferred in a fast and easy wayfrom one place to another.

Know how

Know-how is the capability to do something properly. Information technology know-how includes the familiarity with the tools of information technology including the Internet as well as the skills needed to use these tools. It also includes the understanding of using IT for problem-solving and creating opportunities.

People should know the use of information technology to solve problems. They should also know how information technology can create opportunities for them.

Components of Computer

Different components of a computer system are as follows:

Input Devices

The data or instruction given to the computer is called input. A hardware component used to enter data and instruction into computer is called input device. Most commonly used input devices are keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner, digital camera and PC camera.


Keyboard is used to enter text. It contains alphabetic, numeric and other keys for entering different type of data.


Mouse is a pointing device. It controls the pointer on the screen. The user gives instructions to computer using mouse. It contains different buttons to perform different tasks like selecting an object or opening a program.


Microphone is used to enter voice into the computer.


It reads printed text and graphics and translates results in digital form.

Digital Camera

Digital camera is used to take and store picture in digital form.


Webcam is PC video camera. It is used to capture videos and photos on the computer. It is also used to make video phone calls on the Internet.

Output Devices

The data processed into useful information is called output. A hardware component used to display information to the user is called output device.

Most commonly used output devices are monitor, printer and speaker.


Monitor is used to display text, graphics and video output.


Printer is used to display printed output on paper.


Speaker is used to hear sound, music and voice outputs.

System Unit

System unit is a case that contains different electronic components of the computer used to process data. All computer systems have a system unit. The electronic components in the system unit are connected to motherboard. Motherboard is also known as system board or main board. System board is the communication medium for the entire computer system.

The important components of system unit are as follows:


CPU stands for central processing unit. It is also called processor. It is the brain Of the computer. It is the most important component of a computer. It interprets and executes the instructions in the computer. A computer cannot work without CPU. All computers must have a central processing unit.


The hardware component that stores data and instructions temporarily is called memory. It is also called primary memory or main memory. It consists of electronic chips connected to the motherboard. It is used to store input data before processing. It also stores processed data after Processing until the data is sent to the output device. The main memory is also called volatile because its contents are lost when the computer is turned off.

Storage Devices

Those Hardware deviceswhich store data, instructions and information permanently are known as storage devices. It is called nonvolatile because its contents remain safe when the computer is turned off. Some examples of storage devices are USB flash drive, hard disks and optical disc etc.

Communication Devices

Those hardware devices which communicate and exchange data, instructions and information with other computers are called communication devices. Modem is an example of communication device. It enables the computer to communicate with other computers through telephone line or cable.