Q.01. What is USB flash drive?
Ans: A USB flash drive is portable and lightweight storage device. It is commonly used to transfer documents, photos, music and videos from one computer to other.
Q.02. Define communication devices?
Ans: The hardware components used to communicate and exchange data, instructions and information with other computers are called communication devices.
Q.03. What is a programmer?
Ans: A person who develops application or system software. Programmer writes instructions to direct computer to process data into information.
Q.04. How does the abacus work?
Ans: Abacus was first computing device developed 5000 years ago. It was used to perform simple addition and subtraction. Abacus was a wooden rack. It contained horizontal wires with beads strung on them. All arithmetic calculations were performed by moving beads according to programming rules.
Q.05. Who was John Napier?
Ans: John Napier was a Scottish mathematician. He created logarithm tables to facilitate calculations. He also created a device known as Napier’s Bones. The device used rods to perform arithmetic calculations. It was designed in early 17th century. It was widely used by accountants and bookkeepers.
Q.06. State the role of Pascal?
Ans: Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician. He invented a mechanical adding machine in 1642 known as Pascaline Calculator. The machine contained different metal wheels. Each wheel displayed the digit 0 to 9. It could only add and subtract numbers.
Q.07. Which machine was developed by Von Leibniz?
Ans: Von Leibniz was German scientist. He developed a calculating machine in 1694. It was the first calculator that could multiply and divide also. It was reliable and accurate.
Q.08. Describe the work of Charles Babbage?
Ans: Charles Babbage was a mathematician. He started his work in Cambridge, England to design an automatic mechanical calculating machine. He created the working model of machine by 1822. It was steam powered and fully automatic. It could also print the results. It was known as Difference Engine.
Q.09. What is Difference Engine?
Ans: Difference engine was an early calculator designed by Charles Babbage. It was automatic, mechanical calculating machine. It was steam powered and fully automatic. It could also print results.
Q.10. How were punched cards used?
Ans: Punched cards could store data and results produced by computer. Their invention opened a gate to modern data processing. They provided input, output and memory storage on a large scale.
Q.11. Which technology was used in first generation of computers?
Ans: The first generation computers used vacuum tubes. Vacuum tube was expensive because of the material and skill required to manufacture it. It also becomes hot and burns out. The examples of first generation computers are ENIVAC and UNIVAC-I.
Q.12. What do you know about ENIAC?
Ans: ENIAC was the first general-purpose electronic digital computer. It was very heavy and large in size. It consumed 140 kilowatts of power. It performed arithmetic operations in decimal number system. It had to be programmed manually by setting switches. It was the major drawback of ENIAC.
Q.13. What do you mean by UNIVAC?
Ans: UNIVAC stands for Universal Automatic Computer. It was the first computer for commercial use’ It was delivered to US bureau of census in 1951. It was manufactured both for scientific and commercial applications.
Q.14. Which technology was used in second generation of computers?
Ans: The second generation computers used transistors. The scientists of Bell Laboratories developed transistor in 1947. These scientists include John Bardeen, William Brattain and William. Shockley. The size of computer was decreased by replacing vacuum tubes by transistors.
Q.15. Which technology was used in third generation of computers?
Ans: The third generation computers used integrated circuits. The first IC was invented and used in 1961. The size of an IC is about 1/4 square inch. A single IC chip may contain thousands of transistors. The computer became smaller in size, faster, more reliable and less expensive.
Q.16. Describe the fourth generation of computer?
Ans: Fourth generation computers started with the invention of microprocessor. The microprocessor is a complete processing circuit on a chip. It contains thousands of ICs. Ted Hoff produced the first microprocessor in 1971 for Intel. The advancements were made in the technology of integrated circuits.
Q.17. How did microprocessor affect computers?
Ans: Microprocessor revolutionized the computer world. It greatly reduced the size of computer. The size of modern microprocessors is usually one square inch. It can contain millions of electronic circuits. Microprocessors are used in many electronic devices such as microwave ovens, cars and wristwatches.
Q.18. Explain the fifth generation of computers?
Ans: Fifth generation computers are based on artificial intelligence. They are in development stage. Some applications of this generation are being used like voice recognition. Scientists are working to increase computer speed. The goal is to develop a computer that responds to natural language input.
Q.19. List any five characteristics of computer?
Ans: Five characteristics of computer are as follow:
Storing: It can store data and information permanently.
Processing: It can process the given instructions.
Recalling: It can recall the stored data and information as required.
Control Sequence: It executes instructions by following the same sequence given in the program.
Q.20. What are personal computers (PCs)?
Ans: A personal computer or microcomputer is designed to be used by one person at a time. It consists of a processor, memory and one or more input, output and storage devices. It also often contains a communication device.
Q.21. What is meant by PC—compatible computers?
Ans: The computers that follow the specifications of the original IBM personal computer are called PC compatible computers. Some PC compatible computers include HP, Asus, Dell and Toshiba.
Q.22. What are desktop computers?
Ans: Desktop computers are the most common type of personal computer. It is designed in a way that all its components fit on a desk or table. Some desktop computers also have touch screen.
Q.23. What are different types of desktop computer?
Ans: Different desktop computers are all-in-one computer, workstation and server computer. All-in- one computer combines monitor and system unit into a single device. Workstation computer is used for calculations and graphics work and are used mostly by engineers, graphics artists and architects. A desktop computer can be configured to work as server. A server computer provides services and controls access to the hardware, programs and data in the network.
Q.24. Who uses desktops?
Ans: Home and business users who do not require the portability of a mobile computer use desktops for everyday computing needs. Power users may work with workstation to handle complex calculations and sophisticated graphics. For example, architects use desktops to design buildings and homes. The graphic artists use them to create animated special effects for movies and video games.