Q.1. Why know-how is a component of information technology?
Ans: Know-how is a component of information technology because people should know the use of information technology to solve problems. They should also know how information technology can create opportunities for them.
Q.2. What is difference between users of information technology and IT professionals?
Ans: Users are people who use information technology in their jobs or personal lives. IT professionals are responsible for acquiring , developing, maintaining, or operating the hardware and software associated with computers and communication networks.
Q.3. Briefly describe some important types of IT professionals.
Ans: A systems analyst investigates the requirements of an organization, its employees and its customers. A computer programmer designs, codes and tests computer programs. A database administrator analyzes a company’s data to determine the most effective way to collect and store it. A network administrator plans, installs and maintains local area networks. A website designer creates, tests, posts and modifies Web pages.
Q.4. What is data?
Ans: A collection of raw facts and figures is called data. Data is given to the computer for processing. Data is collected from different sources. Data may consist of numbers, characters, pictures etc.
Q.5. Give an example of data.
Ans: During the census, governments collect the data of all citizens of the country. Government stores this data permanently to use it for different purposes at different times.
Q.6. What is information?
Ans: The processed data is called information. Information is an organized and processed form of data. It is more meaningful than data and is used for making decisions.
Q.7. Give an example of information.
Ans: In colleges and universities, raw facts about students are stored on admission forms. If we want to find out a list of all students who live in Faisalabad, we will apply some processing on data. The Processing will give the desired list. This list is a form of processed data and will be called information.
Q.8. Differentiate between data and information.
Ans: Data is a set of raw facts and information is the processed form of data. Data is used as input in the computer and information is the output of the computer.
Q.9. What derives the hardwar
Ans: The instructions written in a program derive the hardware to co•nvert data into information.
Q.10. What is data processing life cycle?
Ans: Data processing life cycle is a collection of steps required to convert data into information. The steps of data processing life cycle are input, process, output and storage.
Q.11. What are major components of a computer. Briefly describe the function of each component and their relationship.
Ans: The major components of a computer are input devices, CPU, memory, storage devices and output devices. Input devices accept input from the outside world. CPU processes data and Uses memory to temporarily store programs and data. Storage devices store data, instructions and information permanently. Output devices send information to outside world.
Q.12. What are input devices? Give some examples.
Ans: A hardware component used to enter data and instruction into computer is called input device. Common input devices are keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner, digital camera and web cam.
Q.13. What are output devices? Write names of common output devices.
Ans: A hardware component used to display information to the user is called output device. Most commonly used output devices are monitor, printer and speaker.
Q.14. What is system unit?
Ans: System unit is a case that contains different electronic components of the computer used to process data. All computer systems have a system unit. The electronic components in the system unit are connected to motherboard.
Q.15. What is motherboard?
Ans: A motherboard or system board is the main circuit board of the personal computer. Many electronic components attach to the motherboard and some are built into it. Two main components on the motherboard are the Processor and memory. Many motherboards also integrate sound, video and networking capabilities.
Q.16. What are two main components on the motherboard?
Ans: Two main components of system unit are Central Processing Unit and Memory. It interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate computer. Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions
Q.17. Do all computers contain a processing unit?
Ans: All computers contain a processing unit (CPU). CPU is like the brain of computer. A computer without a CPU cannot work.
Q.18. What is the purpose of the central processing unit? What are its other names?
Ans: The purpose of the central processing unit is to perform the processing actions of the computer. This includes arithmetic calculations and logical operations. Other names for the CPU are the processor, the chip, and the microprocessor.
Q.19. What is secondary storage? What is its relation to primary storage?
Ans: Secondary storage is relatively permanent storage. It is external to the computer but can be read by the computer. It can store huge amounts of data.
Q.20. What are storage devices? Write names of some important storage devices?
Ans: The hardware components used to store data and programs permanently are called storage devices. Some important storage devices are hard disks, optical discs and USB flash drive etc.