Software and Hardware Notes

Software and Hardware

Software: In order to solve a problem set of instructions are given to the computer which is called as a software. It is also defined as a program. Different software’s are used to solve different problems. A computer works according to the instructions written in software.

Hardware: The physical parts of the computer are called hardware. The user can see and touch the hardware. Keyboard and mouse are two examples of hardware.

Relationship of Software and Hardware

Software is a set of instructions that tells the computer hardware what to do. The hardware cannot perform any task without software. The software cannot be executed without hardware. A computer becomes useful when hardware and software are combined.

Difference between Software & Hardware

The difference between software and hardware is as follows:


  1. Software is a set of instructions that tell a computer exactly what to do.
  2. They cannot be executed without hardware.
  3. Software cannot be touched but it can be seen.
  4. Mostly the software is debugged in case of problem.
  5. It is re installed if the problem is not solved.


  1. Hardware is the physical parts of the computer that cause processing of data.
  2. Without software, hardware cannot perform any task.
  3. The Hardware can be easily seen and touched.
  4. It can be repaired in case of problem.
  5. The Hardware is replaced if the problem is not solved.


A collection of raw facts and figures is called data. The word raw means that the facts have not been processed to get their exact meaning. Data is given to the computer for processing. Data is collected from different sources. It is collected for different purposes. Data may consist of numbers, characters, symbols or pictures etc.

Examples of Data

Some examples of data are as follows:

  1. Students fill an admission form when they get admission in college. The form consists of raw facts about the students. These raw facts are student’s name, father name, address etc. The purpose of collecting this data is to maintain the records of the students during their study period in the college.
  2. Governments collect the data of all citizens of the country during the census. This data is stored permanently and is used for different purposes at different times.
  3. Different organizations conduct surveys to know the opinion of the people about their product. In these surveys, people express their ideas and opinions about different issues. These ideas and opinions of the people are stored as data. The organizations use this data for the improvement of their products etc.


The processed data is called information. Information is an organized and processed form of data. It is more meaningful than data and is used for making decisions. Data is used as input for the processing and information is the output of this processing. This information can be used again in some other processing and will be considered as data in that processing.

For example, the marks of a student in different subjects is data. This data is used to calculate the total marks which is the information. The total marks can be processed again to calculate average marks of the student. In this processing, total marks is used as data and average marks is the information.

Examples of Information

Some examples of information are as follows:

  • In colleges and universities, the raw facts about students are stored on admission forms. If we want to find out a list of all students who live in Faisalabad, we will apply some processing on this data. This processing will give us the desired list. This list is a form of processed data and will be called information.

• An organization can use the opinion of the people as data and process it to generate information of its interest. For example, it can know that how many people of the country are satisfied with the quality of its product and how many are unsatisfied. The organization can use this information for the improvement of its product.